Abstract Element Locators

The obvious way out to get rid of duplication is to abstract the id's from the methods. An example of that using the signup page class would look like this.

public class SignupPage {

WebDriver driver;

By firstNameTextBoxLocator = By.id("user_first_name");
By lastNameTextBoxLocator = By.id("user_last_name");
By emailTextBoxLocator = By.id("user_email");
By passwordTextBoxLocator = By.id("user_password");
By confirmPasswordTextBoxLocator = By.id("user_password_confirmation");
By signupButtonLocator = By.name("commit");

public SignupPage(WebDriver driver) {
    this.driver = driver;

public void she_provides_the_first_name_as(String firstName) throws Throwable {

public void she_provides_the_last_name_as(String lastName) throws Throwable {

public void she_provides_the_email_as(String email) throws Throwable {

public void she_provides_the_password_as(String password) throws Throwable {

public void she_provides_the_confirm_password_again_as(String confirmPassword) throws Throwable {

public void she_signs_up() throws Throwable {

Observe that we have pulled out the locator strategies as variables. Now if we can call the same locator as many places we need and refer to it by the variable name.

Also, if the locator changes we just need to change it at one common place.

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